Pelobionts and entamoebae
Description of Kathablepharids:
Circumscription: Relatively large biflagellated flagellates, heterotrophic, ingesting larger food particles (other protists) often by means of anteriorly located mouth, with long flagella that appear thicker than most flagella because they (and the body) are covered with a layer of organic matter structured as if comprised of tiny scales in regular arrays. Cells typically with extrusomes in a line along one face of the body. Ultrastructural identity: Mitochondria tubulocristate, dictyosomes are well developed. Two flagella, acutely inclined or near parallel basal bodies give rise to microtubular and microfibrillar structures, with regularly arrayed organic material attached to flagellar membrane and to cell membrane. Microtubules also underlie cell surface, extrusomes rolled ribbon type, with anterior ingestion device being an expanded cone of microtubules, the wall of which may incorporate a cylinder of microtubular ribbons. The nuclear envelope disperses during mitosis, and microtubules of the spindle arise in the cytoplasm. Discrete microtubule organizing centres have not been observed. Synapomorphy: Tubulocristate protists with body and flagella coated in an organic layer apparently formed of fine scales in regular arrays.